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Protecting Farmers Intellectual Property Rights in India: Challenges and Opportunities


Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are essential legal mechanisms that protect the rights of inventors and creators of original works. In India, the concept of IPRs has become increasingly relevant in recent years, particularly in the context of farmers and their rights. Farmers, who have traditionally been the backbone of the Indian economy, are now recognizing the importance of IPRs and are fighting for their rights to be protected.

The issue of IPRs for farmers has gained momentum in recent years due to the increasing incidence of biopiracy, where corporations or individuals use traditional knowledge and resources of communities for commercial gain without providing any compensation or recognition to the community. This is particularly relevant in the context of farmers, who have been the custodians of traditional knowledge related to agriculture for centuries.

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Farmer IP RightIn India, farmers have traditionally had a keen sense of community ownership over their agricultural practices and knowledge, and their rights have been recognized under the Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights (PVFR) Act of 2001. The Act recognizes the contributions of farmers in the conservation and development of plant genetic resources and provides for the protection of their rights over these resources.

Under the PVFR Act, farmers are granted a bundle of rights, including the right to save, use, sow, resow, exchange, share, or sell their farm produce, including seeds of a variety protected under the Act. Farmers are also given the right to participate in the decision-making process related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

In addition to the PVFR Act, farmers are also protected under other IPRs, such as trademarks, patents, and geographical indications. These mechanisms ensure that farmers are given recognition for their unique products and practices and can benefit from the commercialization of their products.

One example of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) protection for farmers is the protection of Basmati rice. Basmati rice is a unique variety of rice that is grown in the foothills of the Himalayas and has been cultivated by farmers for centuries. In 2016, the Geographical Indications Registry granted a GI tag to Basmati rice, recognizing the unique qualities of the rice and protecting it from imitations and unauthorized use.

However, despite the existence of these legal mechanisms, farmers still face challenges in protecting their IPRs. The lack of awareness and knowledge about IPRs among farmers is a major hindrance to their ability to protect their rights. Additionally, the process of obtaining IPRs can be time-consuming and expensive, making it difficult for small-scale farmers to access these protections.

To address these challenges, there is a need for greater awareness and education about IPRs among farmers, as well as simplified and affordable procedures for obtaining these protections. Government initiatives that provide technical and financial assistance to farmers for obtaining IPRs can also go a long way in ensuring that farmers can protect their rights.

One interesting judgment related to the intellectual property rights of farmers in India is the case of PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt. Ltd v. Potato Growers. In 2019, PepsiCo filed a lawsuit against a group of potato farmers in Gujarat, alleging that they were growing and selling a particular variety of potatoes that infringed PepsiCo’s patent rights. PepsiCo claimed that the farmers were using its registered variety of potato, FL-2027, without obtaining prior permission from the company.

The lawsuit sparked outrage among farmers and activists, who argued that PepsiCo was attempting to intimidate small-scale farmers and suppress their right to use their seeds. The case also raised important questions about the ownership and control of plant genetic resources and the rights of farmers to save and exchange seeds.

In response to the lawsuit, the Indian government intervened and supported the farmers’ right to save and exchange seeds. The government argued that the farmers were not using PepsiCo’s registered variety of potatoes but rather a different variety that had been developed through traditional breeding methods. The government also invoked the provisions of the PVFR Act, which grants farmers the right to save, use, share, and sell their farm produce, including seeds of a protected variety.

In April 2019, PepsiCo withdrew its lawsuit, citing its commitment to working with farmers and its recognition of the importance of farmer welfare. The case was seen as a victory for farmers and a recognition of their rights to use and exchange traditional varieties of seeds.

The case highlights the importance of protecting the rights of farmers and the need for a balanced approach to intellectual property laws. It also underscores the significance of traditional knowledge and the role of farmers as custodians of plant genetic resources. While the PepsiCo case was resolved in favour of the farmers, it also highlights the need for greater awareness and education about IPRs among farmers to ensure that they can protect their rights and benefit from the commercialization of their products.


In conclusion, the protection of farmers’ intellectual property rights is crucial for the sustainability and development of India’s agricultural sector. The legal mechanisms available for farmers, such as the PVFR Act, provide a foundation for the protection of farmers’ rights. However, more needs to be done to ensure that farmers can access and benefit from these protections. This includes greater awareness and education about IPRs among farmers, simplified procedures for obtaining protections, and government initiatives that provide technical and financial assistance to farmers. It is only through a concerted effort to protect farmers’ rights that we can ensure a sustainable and prosperous agricultural sector in India, while also recognizing and valuing the contributions of farmers to the country’s cultural and economic heritage.

Author : Ashwin Govind Mathur- 2nd Year Student, 4th Semester, Christ University, Bangalore- Pursuing BBA-LLB, in case of any queries please contact/write back to us via email to [email protected] or at IIPRD. 


1. The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001, Government of India.
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